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Dewa Ruci (2008)

Dalang: Enthus Susmono

Cara penulisan kutipan: Enthus Susmono ([2008] 2016), Dewa Ruci [The Resplendent God], translation and notes by Miguel Escobar Varela and Indraswari Kusumanigtyas. Singapore: Contemporary Wayang Archive. Retrieved from http://cwa-web.org/en/DewaRuci.

Ringkasan (Bahasa Inggris)

Bima is on a spiritual quest to find the meaning of life. His teacher Durna tries to trick him by telling him the answer will be found in the bottom of the ocean. Bima dutifully follows, defeats a dragon that lives in the ocean and finds a miniature version of himself, Dewa Ruci, who explains the spiritual meaning of life to him.

Sumber lakon: Mahabharata, Keadaan Terkini

Iringan: Gamelan

Artistik: Gedebog, Kelir Wayang

Pemain: Dalang Tunggal

Jenis wayang: Wayang Garapan, Wayang Tradisi

Bahasa: Bahasa Indonesia

Catatan Teknik (Bahasa Inggris)

Catatan: Perfomed as part of the Bali Arts Festival 2008 on 3 July 2008.

Diproduksi oleh: Satria Laras

Direkam di: Taman Budaya Bali, Denpasar

Pemeran dan kru

Music: Dedek Wahyudi

Voice: Catur Kuncoro

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Translation and notes by Miguel Escobar Varela (MEV) and Indraswari Kusumaningtyas (IK). In the English title (The Resplendent God) we follow the lead of Bernard Arps. 2016. Tall Tree, Nest of the Wind: The Javanese Shadow-play Dewa Ruci Performed by Ki Anom Soeroto - A Study in Performance Philology. Singapore: NUS Press.

1. Illustration music refers to songs where the lyrics have no direct relationship to the story being presented. During the opening dance of the kayon, Enthus Susmono uses not only the Javanese version of the kayon but also the Balinese one (the small, skewed-ellipse shaped kayon), as a sign of respect for his Balinese audience MEV.

2. Kayu gung susuhing angin lit. kayu besar tempat angin bersarang [the big tree where the wind nests]. However, the krama inggil[high Javanese] for kayu is kajěng, which is equivalent to karěp[wish/desire]. Susuhing angin is regarded as a symbol for breathing. The phrase can be given a spiritual meaning, so that "a big wish or desire can be achieved through the control of breathing" IK.

3. Durna was hit on his head because he did not immediately finish his sentence. This causes him to swear IK.

4. Menjelma [to reincarnate] MEV.

5. Kawěruh Sangkan Paraning Dumadi. Kawěruh [knowledge], sangkan [origin], paraning [destination], and dumadi [life]. These words refer to the understanding of the origin and destination of life, which leads to an attitude of respect and humility, based on the awareness of one’s own place in life. It will be described in more detail at a later part of the performance, during the conversation between Dewa Ruci and Bima at 00:37:54 MEV.

6. In Bali, the Javanese punokawan[clown servants] are not as recognizable as the rest of the Mahabharata characters MEV.

7. Belung nangka [the heart, or seeds, of the jackfruit]. In Java, the seeds of the jackfruit can be boiled until they become soft and eaten (this is called beton). A cup of coffee and boiled beton are usually taken in the afternoon IK.

8. The dialogues from 00:12:25 to 00:12:30 use the Banyumasan dialect of the Javanese language IK.

9. Koes Plus is a musical group in Indonesia, formed in 1969 as a continuation of Koes Bersaudara. The band was famous in the 1970s and is often considered as the pioneer of pop and rock 'n' roll music in Indonesia. IK

10. The joke is that these lines rhyme in the original MEV.

11. Alamin is the same as alam [world] IK.

12. Pondok Pesantren are Islamic boarding schools in Indonesia IK.

13. Matamu! [your eye!] is a joking expression of anger MEV.

14. This is a prayer in Islam to ask for forgiveness from Allah IK.

15. Wa ma fil ard [and on Earth] is an excerpt from a full verse that explains that "Allah is all that is in heaven and on earth" IK.

16. This is a modified Indonesian saying MEV.

17. Muamalat refers to acts involving interaction and exchange among people IK.

18. Makalah is a presentation based on a written manuscript about a certain topic containing facts and opinions IK.

19. This is probably a reference to Suharto MEV.

20. Here, the dalang is imitating the voice of B.J. Habibie, the third president of Indonesia IK.

21. Qolbu [heart]. Manajemen qolbu means to take care that one's heart is always pure, kind and good IK.

22. Gus Dur is the nickname of Abdurrahman Wahid (1940-2009), a religious scholar and the fourth President of Indonesia from 1999 to 2001. During his government he promoted inter-religious tolerance MEV.

23. Muhaimin Iskandar (Cak Imin) is the nephew of Gus Dur and the head of the executive council of the PKB (Partai Kebangkitan Indonesia – National Awakening Party). On 27 March 2008, Gus Dur asked Muhaimin to step down. Muhaimin refused and filed a lawsuit against Gus Dur, and his position was ratified by the trial MEV.

24. In this passage, Enthus imitates Gus Dur’s characteristic voice and way of speaking MEV.

25. SBY (Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono) was President of Indonesia from 2004 to 2014. JK (Jusof Kalla) was Vice President from 2004 to 2009 and he is also the incumbent vice president for term 2014-2018 MEV.

26. This catchphrase is Gus Dur's trademark, a way of saying that things should not be seen as difficult IK.

27. Gareng is praising himself IK.

28. Gareng cuts off Bagong's words IK.

29. He accidentally used a Javanese word, and is mocked by the musicians IK.

30. This is an adaptation of a concept in Islam about "the losers", i.e. people whose works are fruitless in the afterlife IK.

31. Sodaqoh [a good deed] that includes giving away some of the wealth in order to get a blessing from Allah IK.

32. Gareng purposefully mispronounces two words for comic effect. He says mitsalkan instead of misalkan [for example] and rembuat instead of membuat [to do] MEV

33. Kaco is a shortened version of kakehan cocot [talking too much] IK.

34. This narration is done by another dalang, Ki Catur Kuncoro MEV.

35. Titah [creature], in the sense of beings created by God IK.

The honorifics in the original languages were retained in the subtitles. In Javanese and Indonesian, speakers address their interlocutors with over 40 different honorifics which denote differences in their relative status and level of intimacy.

ID = Indonesian

JW = Javanese

Adik. ID. Younger brother/sister. It is used for addressing younger people, not necessarily one's relatives.

Adinda. ID. Younger sister. More intimate than adik.

Babé. ID/Betawi. Familiar form of father, commonly used in Jakarta.

. ID/Betawi. Short form of Babé, father. Jakartan slang. 

Bang. ID. Older brother, short form of abang. If used with non-relatives, it is has the connotation of a slang, and is somewhat equivalent to “man” in English.

Bĕndara. JW. Master.

Bibi. JW/ID. Aunt. A way of addressing/referring to older women. 

Bos. ID/JW. An adaptation of the English "boss". Used either to refer to one's superior or to a friend in a joking context, for example, when a person orders others around without realizing he/she is doing so. 

Bu. ID/JW. Short form of ibu, mother.

Bung. ID. Similar to bang, but slightly less formal.  It might mean "comrade". The political leaders of the independence war are often referred to with this term, for example Sukarno is often referred to as

Bung Karno. 

Dara. JW. Short form of bĕndara, master. 

Dèn. JW. Sir, master, used to address royalty. Short form of radèn.

Dhé. JW. Short form of pakdhé, uncle.

Dhik. JW. Short form of adhik. Younger brother/sister. It is used for addressing younger people, not necessarily one's relatives.

Éyang. JW. Grandfather.

Dimas. JW. Younger brother.

Gusti. JW. Lord. Used to address superiors and Gods.

Ibu. JW/ID. Mother. Used generically to address women who are older than the speaker.

Kakang. JW. Older brother.

Kakang mbok. JW. Older sister.

Kanda. ID. Older brother. Formal.

Kang. JW. Older brother. Informal.

Kangmas. JW. Older brother.

Kaki. JW. Uncle

Kang. JW. Older brother, used generically for men older than the speaker. It is a shortened version of kangmas).

Kakak. JW/ID. Older brother/sister, used generically for people who are older than the speaker.

. JW. Son, short version of tholé.

Lik. JW. Often used between friends as a slang term of address. Uncle, "little father." Short form of {paklik}.

Ma. JW. Same as  pak, short form of rama.

Mbak. JW/ID. Older sister. Used generically for women who are slightly older than the speaker.

Mamang. ID. Uncle.

Mang. ID. Uncle, short form of mamang.

Mas. ID. Older brother, used generically for men who are older than the speaker. Although it is also a shortened version of the Javanese kangmas people prefer to use mas in Indonesian and kang in Javanese.

Mas bro. ID. Slang used among male friends. In a way, it is a reduplication.

Mbah. JW/ID Grandfather, grandmother. It is used generically to address people who are much older than the speaker. Short form of simbah.

Mbok. JW. Mother, short form of simbok. Used generically for women who are older than the speaker.

Mbokdhé. JW. Aunt. Literally, "big mother".

Mbul. JW. Informal term of address between close male friends.

Ndara. JW. Master. 

Nduk. JW. Daughter, short form of gĕndhuk.

Nggèr. JW. Son, short form of anggèr Used generically for people who are younger than the speaker, with whom the speaker is on intimate terms.

Nimas. JW. Younger sister. 

Nok. JW. West Javanese term for daughter, short form of dhénok.

Nona. ID. Miss, unmarried woman.

Paduka. ID. Your Excellency. 

Pak. JW/ID. Father, used generically for men who are older than the speaker.

Pakdhé. JW. Uncle. Used to refer to a man who is older than one's father. 

Paman. ID. Uncle. Used to refer to a man who is older than one's father. 

Pangéran. JW/ID. Prince.

Prabu. JW. King.

Radén. JW. Master, used for royalty.

Rama. JW. Father. It can also be used to designate catholic priests when one is speaking in Indonesian. 

Simbah. JW/ID Grandfather, grandmother. It is used generically to address people who are much older than the speaker. 

Sinuwun. JW. Very formal way to address a man, reserved for sultans, kings and Gods.

Siwa. JW. Term for addressing older people. 

Siwak. JW. Same as Siwa. Term for addressing older people. 

Tholé. JW. Son

Tuan. ID. In colonial contexts, this is the way foreigners are addressed but it can also mean sir.

Wa Nĕrpati. JW. Uncle king, equivalent to the Indonesian paman raja.

Wa. JW. For addressing older people, short form of siwa.

Yayi. JW.  Younger brother/sister.

Yunda. JW. Older sister.

See the Translation conventions.



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