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Wayang Hip Hop (2012)

Dalang: Catur Kuncoro

Cara penulisan kutipan: Catur Kuncoro ([2012] 2016), Wayang Hip Hop [Hip Hop Wayang], translation and notes by Miguel Escobar Varela, Thomas Sembodo and Yosephin Novi Marginingrum. Singapore: Contemporary Wayang Archive. Retrieved from http://cwa-web.org/en/WayangHipHop.

Ringkasan (Bahasa Inggris)

A series of comic sketches and songs where the dalang, a comedian, and two rappers question the role of tradition in a changing society. The sketches are also loosely joined by a story involving the Punokawan or clown servants. Mbilung, their uncle, tricks Bagong into trying drugs and becoming part of an incipient drug business. Bagong naively agrees but his brothers Petruk and Gareng find out and intervene. They capture Bilung, Bagong and the drug dealers, and ask Semar for advice. Semar says that they should be given over to the authorities, even if they are members of their own kind.

Sumber lakon: Mahabharata, Keadaan Terkini

Iringan: Gamelan, Hip Hop

Artistik: Gedebog, Kelir Wayang, Panggung Teater

Pemain: Dalang Tunggal, Pemain Teater

Jenis wayang: Wayang Tradisi, Wayang Garapan

Bahasa: Bahasa Jawa

Catatan Teknik (Bahasa Inggris)

Catatan: Wayang Hip Hop is the name of a performance genre by Ki Catur "Benyek" Kuncoro. This particular performance does not have a unique title.

Diproduksi oleh: National University of Singapore and Indonesian Visual Art Archive

Direkam di: Pendopo Kersan, Yogyakarta

Pemeran dan kru

Performers: Tyno TNT, Inung Arhaens, Tiara Santika, Rio "Srundeng" Pujangkoro

Video editing: Miguel Escobar Varela.

Melihat metadata untuk file ini.

Translation and notes by Miguel Escobar Varela (MEV), Thomas Sembodo (TS) and Yosephin Novi Marginingrum(YNM).

1. Ong/om is a sacred sound commonly used in Indian religions and also as a mantra in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. The gandung flower (Dioscorea hispida dennst) is a yam that can induce intoxication if prepared in the wrong way. It is commonly known as the Asiatic bitter yam YNM.

2. These verses correspond to a song attributed to Sunan Kali Jaga, one of the nine saints credited with the spread of Islam in Java. According to legend, wayang was invented as a medium to spread Islam MEV.

3. Jadah is a Javanese traditional cake made from sticky rice processed with coconut milk TS.

4. These lines correspond to a pantun [a short poetic form]. They are usually recited as a way of bidding someone farewell TS.

5. Traditionally, Javanese houses had open water wells for travelers to stop by and a shower. Here, the dalang playfully substitutes mandi [shower] for mati [to die] MEV.

6. Jadul is a slang term. It is a contraction of jaman dulu [bygone times]MEV.

7. Pakěm [canon] refers here to the stylistic rules of wayang MEV.

8. Meta-theatrical joke. Joking about not getting paid is a common trope both in traditional shows and in many of the contemporary Wayang shows in this collection (for example, the punokawan scene in Enthus Sumono’s Dewa Ruci) MEV.

9. Ndasmu njěbluk [your head explodes] is a joking expression of anger. It is often appended to the phrase an interlocutor utters to trigger this anger, in this case KTP ndasmu njěbluk! [identity card your head explodes!]. Gatotkaca plays fool and replies by asking whether his head is a ball. This further triggers the anger of his father, Werkudara MEV.

10. The joke is that Jodipati [the mythological residence of the wayang character] is given as an address in Yogyakarta. RT [Rukun Tetangga] is the standard division of neighborhoods. A RW [rukun warga] consists of three to four RT YNM.

11. Gatotkaca names himself in second place since it is conventional to insert oneself in the list of siblings ordered by decreasing seniority MEV.

12. Gatotkaca is one of the few characters in traditional wayang who can fly, something his father cannot do MEV.

13. Blĕrĕng [blinded by the Sun] YNM.

14. Tot is a short form for Gatotkaca MEV.

15. He refers to the airline as a kapal udara [air ship] in order to make the reference fit the language of wayang. Indonesian airlines are infamously unsafe. However, this is probably a reference to the crash of the Russian Sukohi jet in May 2012, which made headline news a few days before the recording of this performance. Many local Indonesian airlines have notoriously bought second hand planes that do not comply with international safety regulations MEV.

16. Werkudara tells his son not to go west of Prambanan, that is, to an area of Yogya called Kalasan. The name of the area also means to make up an excuse MEV.

17. Mbahmu atrèt [your grandma walks backwards] is a Joking expression of anger, a more polite version of ndasmu njěbluk (see note 3). Gatotkaca plays the fool and pretends the insult should be taken literally, asking whether his grandma has directional lights. Werkudara says, reting matamu [directional lights, your eyes!] MEV.

18. Matamu [your eyes] is also an expression of anger, less polite than mbahmu atrèt, but not as rude as ndasmu njebluk MEV.

19. Ngomèl [speak in an angry way, grumble] TS.

20. This is a Purwakanthi, a rhymed expression of popular wisdom. The full expression is: isi sawo yaiku jĕnĕngé kěcik, dadi bocah nèk lělaku mbok ya sing běcik [the sapodilla’s seed is called kecik, you should become a kid who behaves well] MEV.

21. Kuwalat [to be cursed] is often used by parents to reprimand their children TS.

22. Although the word ang pao [red package] is of Chinese origin, it has come to designate the gifts (usually money) that children receive from their parents on Lebaran, the Muslim celebration at the end of the fasting month MEV.

23. Éla-Élo refers to a motion of the head from side to side, expressing disbelief and surprise at something ridiculous. It can be loosely translated as "what on Earth?" MEV.

24. Singiskan lengan baju [roll up your sleeves] suggests preparation for work MEV.

25. These verses are taken from Tembang Pocung, a stanza in the Serat Wedhatama, a literary work attributed to sultan Mangunagara IV (1809-1881) YNM.

26. Kěrok is traditional healing practice, which consists of rubbing a coin against the back of a sick person in order to restore their health TS.

27. A monologue like this one is called ngudarasa [expressing one's anger] MEV.

28. Klitikan is a flea market in Yogyakarta MEV.

29. Rĕgudag-rĕgudug [several things happening at the same time] YNM.

30. Bĕlèh [to slit the throat] is used only for animals YNM.

31. The joke is that B sama dengan S [B sharp] sounds like Bèsèr [wanting to pee all the time] MEV.

32. Ora tata [not polite] is a funny, playful insult in Javanese MEV.

33. Digĕnjrèng [strumming a chord in the guitar] YNM.

34. According to the dalang, there is no special meaning to these words, anything would be funny in this context MEV.

35. This text is a playful variation on the song used to invite Petruk on stage in a traditional wayang MEV.

36. Nyĕnthir [spray a small amount of water]; Nyĕnthor [spray a big amount of water] YNM.

37. The joke is that the verses relating to the other characters all rhyme Petruk/kuwuk, Bagong/bangkong, Semar/kowar. But what he says about himself does not Gareng/dokter MEV.

38. Milk is still considered an upper-class drink in some parts of Java MEV.

39. This verses are usually used to summon spirits in village rituals. But the joke here is that Petruk won't be paid for his performance MEV.

40. In order to summon the ghost, people make dolls with stolen materials: a basket of flowers offered to a deceased person, a siwur [wooden scoop people use to take showers with], and a coconut shell MEV.

41. This is těmbung dwi lingga [rhymed saying consisting of two lines] YNM.

42. Purwakanthi is a Javanese poem. It can consist of a purwakanthi guru sastra [alliteration] or purwakanthi lumaksita [rhyme] YNM.

43. Sukur kowé! [You are fortunate] is said when a person is accidentally avenged by another party. A freer translation, eat dirt! is offered here MEV.

44. It is conventional for Semar to fart during the performances. Semar is the embodiment of opposing forces. As such, he is both a God and a servant, and his demeanor is both holy and profane MEV.

45. This was of the ideals of Suharto's regime (1966-1998), often repeated in English MEV.

46. Budi pekerti [manners] is a Javanese expression TS.

47. Rhymed in the original MEV.

48. Pamit [taking leave from someone] is part of Javanese etiquette MEV.

49. Tĕngu [a small, redish flea], dièkèr-èkèr [to use claws to dig on ground] is used here for comic effect, since it is most commonly used only to refer to chicken looking for food YNM.

50. Kĕmrayah [extreme itch] YNM.

51. Pating clĕkit [soreness resulting from constant insect bites] YNM.

52. Salin sréngat [change of clothes]. Figuratively, it refers to a change in attitude. In this case, it refers to the Pandawa changing their attitude after winning the war. This song also alludes to the heroes of the Indonesian struggle for independence, who changed their attitude after their victory MEV.

53. Sĕglang-sĕglèng [to walk while excessively swinging the arms] is taken as a sign of arrogance YNM.

54. Mbagusi [to act without consideration for others] YNM.

55. Dlèwèran [water running without clear direction] TS.

56. Kimpling [clean and shiny] YNM.

57. Magrong-magrong [big and high] YNM.

58. Pungil is a contraction of pungutan liar [illegal taxes] YNM

59. This verse, often repeated in wayang performances is taken from the Kinanthi macapat of the Serat Witaradya, written by Ranggawarsita (1802-1873) YNM.

60. Sirig [to dance by jumping around] YNM.

61. A comment on the bad performance of the dancer. Gatotkaca is able to fly and in the wayang wong conventions this is represented by a series of small steps, which are poorly executed by the rapper in this performance MEV.

62. It was common in Java, all the way up to the 1980s not to have special food for babies. Small children were only fed rice with sugar MEV.

63. SMK stands for Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan [Vocational High School] TS.

64. Gareng's body is deformed MEV.

65. Ki Hajar Dewantoro [1889-1959) was the founder of the Taman Siswa [Student Garden], an institution that provided education for Javanese commoners, which was otherwise restricted to the Javanese aristocracy and the Dutch MEV.

66. Gĕbrah [numbness of the mouth] YNM.

67. Pengkal [to kick with the rear leg] is often used for cows and horses YNM.

68. Glĕndam-glĕndĕm [to be silent but without paying attention] YNM.

69. Mambu sawo [alcoholic breath] MEV.

70. Indonesian proverb. It means that people's fortunes depend on their words TS.

71. Bagong is one of the punokawan [clown servants]. People sometimes save their money in pots that look like Bagong MEV.

72. Cakil is a demon that often makes an appearance in wayang shows for the sole purpose of being killed by Arjuna. He is never part of the main story line MEV.

73. Ambus-ambus [to sniff with a snout] is most commonly used only for animals YNM.

74. Adul-adul [to denounce others], is often used an implication of cowardice YNM.

75. The first sounds of a... saudara-saudara sound like asu [dog], an insult in Javanese MEV.

76. When ingested, the skin ointment can induce a state of intoxication MEV.

77. The puppets are placed on one of two gěděbog [banana logs] in order to indicate status. The puppets of higher status should be placed in the upper gedebog MEV.

78. In Indonesia, it is common for maried couples to call each other papi/papa [father] and mami/mama [mother]. These terms can be loosely translated as honey TS.

79. Here Bagong switches to jawa krama [high Javanese] MEV.

80. Nggĕndéra [to be respected] comes from the word bendera [flag]. Literally, a respected person is the flag bearer YNM.

81. Gèdhèg-gèdhèg [movement of the head from side to side] is used to describe the motion of people who have consumed the drug extasis MEV.

82. Lintingan [small, rolled package] is often used to describe hand-rolled tobacco YNM.

83. Glogok [to pour] is an onomatopoeic word that imitates the sound of water being poured YNM.

84. Mari yuk kemari [come on here] sounds like marijuana MEV.

85. Dongkelan is a street market, south of Yogyakarta MEV.

86. Gelek is a local name for marijuana TS.

87. Word play. Gelek [marijuana] sounds like the disease bèlèkĕn [conjunctivitis] YNM.

88. At the time of recording (2012) 500 thousand rupiah were equivalent to roughly 5 USD MEV.

89. The Garuda is a mythological bird; it is the emblem of the Indonesian Republic. The emrit [sparrow] by comparison, is a common bird. Taken together, both birds represent the rich and the poor MEV.

90. Jĕntat-jĕntit [to move up and down repeatedly], usually describes the work of plowing the land YNM.

91. Jimpit [an amount of powder or grains that can be held with only two fingers] TS.

92. Kĕcérit-cérit [diarrhea] YNM.

93. The following lines imitate the typical words used by a pedagang rosokan [street vendor] that accepts barters instead of money YNM.

94. Jĕngglĕng [to day dream], sarĕndĕng [the duration of a season]. Java is affected by the monsoon seasons: wet and dry YNM.

95. Sĕnut-sĕnut [in constant pain] YNM.

96. Bèsèk [bamboo box] used to distribute food to the attendees during a neighborhood ceremony such as a wedding or funeral YNM.

97. Grégah [to wake up suddenly], bank plěcit [an informal money lender] YNM.

98. Jaman édan [crazy times]. These verses correspond to a well known těmbang macapat [sung poem] attributed to Ranggawarsita (1802-1873) which describes the iterative sequence of ordered and crazy times in history MEV.

99. Bim sala bim is used as a magical formula in popular culture MEV.

100. Rinso is a popular detergent brand in Indonesia YNM.

101. Njĕrum [to wallow in mud] is often used for animals YNM.

102. These verses correspond to a poem written by Gabriel Possenti Sindhunata 9b. 1984), a writer and religous scholar MEV.

103. Java is an active volcanic region where the volcanic plains are highly fertile. Lava is seen as a symbol of both life and destruction MEV.

104. Karang Kadèmpèl is the place of residence of the punokawan [clown servants] MEV.

105. Upon entering a wayang, Semar always utters this sounds MEV.

106. Nggajul [to kick with the of tip of the foot] YNM.

The honorifics in the original languages were retained in the subtitles. In Javanese and Indonesian, speakers address their interlocutors with over 40 different honorifics which denote differences in their relative status and level of intimacy.

ID = Indonesian

JW = Javanese

Adik. ID. Younger brother/sister. It is used for addressing younger people, not necessarily one's relatives.

Adinda. ID. Younger sister. More intimate than adik.

Babé. ID/Betawi. Familiar form of father, commonly used in Jakarta.

. ID/Betawi. Short form of Babé, father. Jakartan slang. 

Bang. ID. Older brother, short form of abang. If used with non-relatives, it is has the connotation of a slang, and is somewhat equivalent to “man” in English.

Bĕndara. JW. Master.

Bibi. JW/ID. Aunt. A way of addressing/referring to older women. 

Bos. ID/JW. An adaptation of the English "boss". Used either to refer to one's superior or to a friend in a joking context, for example, when a person orders others around without realizing he/she is doing so. 

Bu. ID/JW. Short form of ibu, mother.

Bung. ID. Similar to bang, but slightly less formal.  It might mean "comrade". The political leaders of the independence war are often referred to with this term, for example Sukarno is often referred to as

Bung Karno. 

Dara. JW. Short form of bĕndara, master. 

Dèn. JW. Sir, master, used to address royalty. Short form of radèn.

Dhé. JW. Short form of pakdhé, uncle.

Dhik. JW. Short form of adhik. Younger brother/sister. It is used for addressing younger people, not necessarily one's relatives.

Éyang. JW. Grandfather.

Dimas. JW. Younger brother.

Gusti. JW. Lord. Used to address superiors and Gods.

Ibu. JW/ID. Mother. Used generically to address women who are older than the speaker.

Kakang. JW. Older brother.

Kakang mbok. JW. Older sister.

Kanda. ID. Older brother. Formal.

Kang. JW. Older brother. Informal.

Kangmas. JW. Older brother.

Kaki. JW. Uncle

Kang. JW. Older brother, used generically for men older than the speaker. It is a shortened version of kangmas).

Kakak. JW/ID. Older brother/sister, used generically for people who are older than the speaker.

. JW. Son, short version of tholé.

Lik. JW. Often used between friends as a slang term of address. Uncle, "little father." Short form of {paklik}.

Ma. JW. Same as  pak, short form of rama.

Mbak. JW/ID. Older sister. Used generically for women who are slightly older than the speaker.

Mamang. ID. Uncle.

Mang. ID. Uncle, short form of mamang.

Mas. ID. Older brother, used generically for men who are older than the speaker. Although it is also a shortened version of the Javanese kangmas people prefer to use mas in Indonesian and kang in Javanese.

Mas bro. ID. Slang used among male friends. In a way, it is a reduplication.

Mbah. JW/ID Grandfather, grandmother. It is used generically to address people who are much older than the speaker. Short form of simbah.

Mbok. JW. Mother, short form of simbok. Used generically for women who are older than the speaker.

Mbokdhé. JW. Aunt. Literally, "big mother".

Mbul. JW. Informal term of address between close male friends.

Ndara. JW. Master. 

Nduk. JW. Daughter, short form of gĕndhuk.

Nggèr. JW. Son, short form of anggèr Used generically for people who are younger than the speaker, with whom the speaker is on intimate terms.

Nimas. JW. Younger sister. 

Nok. JW. West Javanese term for daughter, short form of dhénok.

Nona. ID. Miss, unmarried woman.

Paduka. ID. Your Excellency. 

Pak. JW/ID. Father, used generically for men who are older than the speaker.

Pakdhé. JW. Uncle. Used to refer to a man who is older than one's father. 

Paman. ID. Uncle. Used to refer to a man who is older than one's father. 

Pangéran. JW/ID. Prince.

Prabu. JW. King.

Radén. JW. Master, used for royalty.

Rama. JW. Father. It can also be used to designate catholic priests when one is speaking in Indonesian. 

Simbah. JW/ID Grandfather, grandmother. It is used generically to address people who are much older than the speaker. 

Sinuwun. JW. Very formal way to address a man, reserved for sultans, kings and Gods.

Siwa. JW. Term for addressing older people. 

Siwak. JW. Same as Siwa. Term for addressing older people. 

Tholé. JW. Son

Tuan. ID. In colonial contexts, this is the way foreigners are addressed but it can also mean sir.

Wa Nĕrpati. JW. Uncle king, equivalent to the Indonesian paman raja.

Wa. JW. For addressing older people, short form of siwa.

Yayi. JW.  Younger brother/sister.

Yunda. JW. Older sister.

See the Translation conventions.



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